Video

By Rachel WhittleRBWhittle@gmail.com

Definition Description Research Resources References



Definition

TechEncyclopedia (United Business Media, 2008) defines video as:

220px-LG_L194WT-SF_LCD_monitor.jpg (1) May refer to a computer's display system rather than TV/video as in definition #3 below. For example, a "video card" is the same as a "graphics card" or "display adapter." graphics-card.jpgThe video system in a computer uses different standards than TV. It sends analog (VGA) or digital (DVI) signals to the monitor. See display adapter, VGA and DVI.










(2) A generic term for a full-length movie or a short movie clip. It can refer to an vhstape.jpganalog VHS videotape, to a digital format such as a DVD disc or to a computer file (WMV, AVI, MPEG, DivX, etc.). 41YZEAfUSsL._SL500_AA300_.jpgPrior to the 1990s, the term implied that an analog TV set or monitor (TV without tuner) was used for viewing. Since then, movies can be created in digital camcorders and played on computers without ever being turned into the traditional analog NTSC TV/video format (see definition #3 below).






television-with-antenna.jpg(3) The image capture and transmission technology that was developed for the television industry. It was later enhanced with recording and playback capabilities. In North America, NTSC is the analog TV standard, and DTV is the digital TV standard.images.jpgIn Europe and other countries, PAL and SECAM are the analog standards, and DVB and ISDB are the digital standards. See NTSC, DTV and VTR.










Description

As you can see, video comes in a variety of formats and and can be displayed in various formats as well. Watch this video for appropriate uses of video in the classroom.


This video is available for free by registering at http://www.schoolvideos.com/expert/7_mistakes


Why Use Video in the Classroom?

"Teachers who use instructional video report that their students retain more information, understand concepts more rapidly and are more enthusiastic about what they are learning. With video as one component in a thoughtful lesson plan, students often make new connections between curriculum topics, and discover links between these topics and the world outside the classroom" (Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2006).
"Video is uniquely suited to:
  • take students on impossible field trips--inside the human body, or off to Jupiter
  • take students around the globe, to meet new people and hear their ideas
  • illustrate complex, abstract concepts through animated, 3-D images
  • show experiments that can't be done in class
  • bring great literature, plays, music, or important scenes from history into the room" Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2006).


"By exploiting the medium's power to deliver lasting images, teachers can
  • reach children with a variety of learning styles, especially visual learners, and students with a variety of information acquisition styles
  • engage students in problem-solving and investigative activities
  • begin to dismantle social stereotypes
  • help students practice media literacy and critical viewing skills
  • provide a common experience for students to discuss" (Educational Broadcasting Corporation, 2006).


Research on Video Use in the Classroom

Copyright

Videos can be uploaded and used if they are created by the school or district, its students, or if the copyright holder permits it. If not, it can fall under fair-use if it meets these requirements 1) it must be used for an educational non-profit purpose, 2) it must be factual content (not entertainment), 3) it can only be a portion of the work, 4) it cannot have a negative impact on the potential market. (Kross, 2009).

Use in Educational Software

Students felt they learned the content best when allowed the opportunity to watch video on a screen and click and interact with the various components. The study showed that students retained the material better with more interaction and feedback (Cherrett, Wills, Price, Maynard & Dror, 2009).
Video can take many forms, can be engaging, and make content memorable. However, it can be expensive and time consuming to produce a quality product and can slow down computers. It should be used for important information, should be kept short, and should allow for user control (Alessi & Trollip, 2001)

Use for Instruction

General

Videos can be used to capture motion and slow it down, measuring frame by frame. Students can then take the information and perform calculations. it applies well for mathematics and science. Video can also be used to model experiments or techniques (Heck, 2009).

Instructional videos are more effective if the students can observe an instructor teaching a group of students on the video and if students can work together to find their own solutions to the problems presented (Craig, Chi, and VanLehn, 2009).

Using YouTube to record lectures that cannot be given in person allows students to be able to access the content and review sections or parts of lectures that were not understood well. The process is easy if the professor or teacher can divide the lecture into smaller chunks of about 10 minutes each (Haase, 2009).

Using online sites gives students and teachers immediate access to material. Media can range from drawings, graphs, animations, photos to interactive music, audio, and video. Video can help introduce a concept to the class and technology is geared towards "millenials" (Miller, 2009).

Science

Teachers can assign topics to groups of students and have them search YouTube for videos that teach the content. The teacher must view each video completely for content, and due to school site firewalls, may have to download videos and bring them into the classroom. Teachers can also create their own videos to teach content. The benefit is that students may be able to watch content directly from the source (Einstein, Sagan, etc.), and YouTube allows students to take virtual fieldtrips (Everhart, 2009).

Physical Education and Disability Awareness

Online tools allow teachers to easily access content. For example, teachers can use online videos to show students what a disability may look like. Students can watch how a sport is played and they can see how students with disabilities manage to play sports.
Language Arts YouTube is ideal because it has short video clips that can introduce content to be studied to students. Students can view the material and use it as inspiration for their own projects. The videos are easily replayed, tagged, and viewers can have a discussion online about the content through the comments. Students can create summaries, parodies, or even interpret text in different ways. Because the clips are short, a teacher can also choose among a few and present the clips of the same material so that students can compare and contrast the versions.


Resources:

Images found using Google Images. Each picture links to the original source.

For free video:

http://www.Youtube.com
http://www.teachertube.com
http://vimeo.com

Subscription based video:

http://www.DiscoveryEducation.com
http://www.learn360.com
I recently learned that there are college lectures available -- as well as many films and clips through iTunes.



References:

Alessi, S., and Trollip, R. (2001). Multimedia for Learning. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.

Cherrett, T., Wills, G., Price, J., Maynard, S., and Dror, I. (2009). Making trianing more cognitively effective: Making videos interactive. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40 (6), 1124-1134.

Columna, L., Arndt, K., Lieberman, L., and Yang, S., (2009). Using online videos for disability awareness. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80 (8), 19-24

Craig, S., Chi, M., and VanLehn, K. (2009). Improving classroom learning by collaboratively observing human tutoring videos while problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101 (4), 779-789.

Desmet, C. (2009). Teaching Shakespeare with YouTube. English Journal, 99 (1), 65-70.

Everhart, J. (2009). YouTube in the science classroom. Science and children, 46 (9), 32-35.

Haase, D. (2009). The YouTube makeup class. The Physics Teacher, 47, 272-273.

Heck, A. (2009). Bringing reality into the classroom. Teaching Mathematics and Its Applications, 28, 164-179.

Koss, J. (2009). The DVD dilemma. School Library Journal, 34-36. Retrieved Mar 2010 http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6699100.html?industryid=47058

Miller, M. (2009). Integrating online multimedia into college course and classroom: With application to the social sciences. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 395-423.

TechEncyclopedia (2008). United Business Media LLC. Retrieved February 2010 http://www.techweb.com/encyclopedia/defineterm.jhtml?term=video

Video Strategies (2009). National Teacher Training Institute. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved February 2010 http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/ntti/resources/video1.html